Animals are my friends, and I don't eat my friends - George Bernard Shaw

Whale

Sperm whale

Source

Sperm whale

 

The term whale is ambiguous: it can refer to all cetaceans, to just the larger ones, or only to members of particular families within the order Cetacea. The last definition is the one followed here. Whales are those cetaceans which are neither dolphins (i.e. members of the families Delphinidae or Platanistoidea) nor porpoises. This can lead to some confusion because Orcas ("Killer Whales") and Pilot whales have "whale" in their name, but they are dolphins for the purpose of classification.
 

Humpback Whales Feeding off Cape Cod

Video, Movie, Film, Clip. Mpeg

Origins and taxonomy

All cetaceans, including whales, dolphins and porpoises, are descendants of land-living mammals of the Artiodactyl order (even-toed ungulate animals). Both cetaceaos and artiodactyl are now classified under the super-order Cetartiodactyla which includes both whales and hippos. In fact, whales are the closest living relatives of hippos; they evolved from a common ancestor at around 54 million years ago.[1] Whales entered the water roughly 50 million years ago.[2]

Cetaceans are divided into two suborders:

  • The baleen whales are characterized by baleen, a sieve-like structure in the upper jaw made of keratin, which they use to filter plankton from the water. They are the largest species of whale.
  • The toothed whales have teeth and prey on fish, squid, or both. An outstanding ability of this group is to sense their surrounding environment through echolocation.

A complete up-to-date taxonomical listing of all cetacean species, including all whales, is maintained at the Cetacea article.

Share |

Anatomy

Like all mammals, whales breathe air into lungs, are warm-blooded, feed their young milk from mammary glands, and have some (although very little) hair.

The body is fusiform, resembling the streamlined form of a fish. The forelimbs, also called flippers, are paddle-shaped. The end of the tail holds the fluke, or tail fins, which provide propulsion by vertical movement. Although whales generally do not possess hind limbs, some whales (such as sperm whales and baleen whales) sometimes have rudimentary hind limbs; some even with feet and digits. Most species of whale bear a fin on their backs known as a dorsal fin.

Click Image to get better picture

Baleen Whale Anatomy

Source

Baleen Whale Anatomy

Beneath the skin lies a layer of fat, the blubber. It serves as an energy reservoir and also as insulation. Whales have a four-chambered heart. The neck vertebrae are fused in most whales, which provides stability during swimming at the expense of flexibility.

Whales breathe through blowholes, located on the top of the head so the animal can remain submerged. Baleen whales have two; toothed whales have one. The shapes of whales' spouts when exhaling after a dive, when seen from the right angle, differ between species. Whales have a unique respiratory system that lets them stay underwater for long periods of time without taking in oxygen. Some whales, such as the Sperm Whale, can stay underwater for up to two hours holding a single breath. The Blue Whale is the largest known mammal that has ever lived, and the largest living animal, at up to 35 m (105ft) long and 150 tons.

Whales generally live for 40-200 years, depending on their species, but it is rare to find one that lives over a century. Recently a fragment of a lance used by commercial whalers in the 1800s has been found in a huge bowhead whale caught off Alaska. The fragment showed the whale is estimated between 115 and 130 years old. [3] "No other finding has been this precise," said John Bockstoce, an adjunct curator of the New Bedford Whaling Museum.[4]

Their skin has evolved hydrophilic properties. Its surface is covered with microscopic pores surrounded by nanoridges. I  Between these ridges there is a rubber-like gel which is excreted from the gaps between the skin cells. I  This gel contains enzymes that attack microbes, and the edge of the ridges makes it hard for smaller organisms to attach themselves.

Whale flukes often can be used as identifying markings, as is the case for humpback whales. This is the method by which the publicized errant Humphrey the whale was identified in three separate sightings.

A Humpback Whale breaching

Source

A Humpback Whale breaching

Anatomy of the ear

While there are direct similarities between the ears of whales and humans, whales’ ears have specific adaptations to their underwater environment. In humans, the middle ear works as an impedance matcher between the outside air’s low-impedance and the cochlear fluid’s high-impedance. In aquatic mammals such as whales, however, there is no great difference between the outer and inner environments. Instead of sound passing through outer ear to middle ear, whales receive sound through their lower jaw, where it passes through a low-impedance, fat-filled cavity.[5]

Behaviour

Whales are widely classed as predators, but their food ranges from microscopic plankton to very large fish. Males are called bulls; females, cows. The young are called calves.

Because of their environment (and unlike many animals), whales are conscious breathers: they decide when to breathe. All mammals sleep, including whales, but they cannot afford to fall into an unconscious state for too long, since they need to be conscious in order to breathe. It is thought that only one hemisphere of their brains sleeps at a time, so that whales are never completely asleep, but still get the rest they need. Whales are thought to sleep around 8 hours a day. I

Whales also communicate with each other using lyrical sounds. Being so large and powerful these sounds are also extremely loud (depending on the species; sperm whales have only been heard making clicks, as all toothed whales (Odontoceti) use echolocation and can be heard for many miles. They have been known to generate about 20,000 acoustic watts of sound at 163 decibels. [6]

Females give birth to a single calf. Nursing time is long (more than one year in many species), which is associated with a strong bond between mother and young. In most whales reproductive maturity occurs late, typically at seven to ten years. This mode of reproduction spawns few offspring, but provides each with a high probability of survival in the wild.

The male genitals are retracted into cavities of the body during swimming, so as to be streamlined and reduce drag. Most whales do not maintain fixed partnerships during mating; in many species the females have several mates each season. At birth the newborn is delivered tail-first, so the risk of drowning is minimized. Whale mothers nurse the young by actively squirting milk into their mouths, a milk that according to German naturalist Dieffenbach I , bears great similarities to cow's milk, except with a much higher concentration of fat. Biologists compare the consistency of whale milk to cottage cheese; it must be thick, or else it will dissipate into the surrounding water.

Eighteenth century engraving of Dutch whalers hunting Bowhead Whales in the Arctic

Source

Eighteenth century engraving of Dutch whalers hunting Bowhead Whales in the Arctic. Beerenberg on Jan Mayen Land can be seen in the background.

Human impacts

Whaling

Some species of large whales are endangered as a result of large-scale whaling during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. For centuries large whales have been hunted for oil, meat, baleen and ambergris (a perfume ingredient from the intestine of sperm whales). By the middle of the 20th century, whaling left many populations severely depleted.

The International Whaling Commission introduced a six year moratorium on all commercial whaling in 1986, the moratorium was due to be lifted in 1992 but has been extended till the present day. For various reasons some exceptions to this moratorium exist; current whaling nations are Norway, Iceland and Japan and the aboriginal communities of Siberia, Alaska and northern Canada. For details, see whaling.

Nature's Great Events [DVD]

Nature's Great Events [DVD] [2009] from Amazon.co.uk

"Outstanding writing, mesmerising images and well, how can you go wrong with a narration by David Attenborough"

Several species of small whales are caught as bycatch in fisheries for other species. In the tuna fishery in the Eastern Tropical Pacific thousands of dolphins were drowned in purse-seine nets, until measures to prevent this were introduced. Fishing gear and deployment modifications, and eco-labelling (dolphin-safe or dolphin-friendly brands of canned tuna), have contributed to an estimated 96% reduction in the mortality of dolphins by tuna fishing vessels in recent years. I  In many countries, small whales are still hunted for food, oil, meat or bait.

Sonar interference

Environmentalists have long argued that some cetaceans, including whales, are endangered by sonar used by advanced navies. In 2003 British and Spanish scientists suggested in Nature that sonar is connected to whale beachings and to signs that the beached whales have experienced decompression sickness. [7] Mass whale beachings occur in many species, mostly beaked whales that use echolocation systems for deep diving. The frequency and size of beachings around the world, recorded over the last 1,000 years in religious tracts and more recently in scientific surveys, has been used to estimate the changing population size of various whale species by assuming that the proportion of the total whale population beaching in any one year is constant.

Despite the concerns raised about sonar which may invalidate this assumption, this population estimate technique is still popular today. Researchers in the area (Talpalar & Grossman, 2005) support the view that it is the combination of the high pressure environment of deep-diving with the disturbing effect of the sonar which causes decompression sickness and stranding of whales. Thus, an exaggerated startle response occurring during deep diving may alter orientation cues and produce rapid ascent.

Following public concern, the U.S. Defense department has been ordered by the U.S. judiciary to strictly limit use of its Low Frequency Active Sonar during peacetime. Attempts by the UK-based Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society to obtain a public inquiry into the possible dangers of the Royal Navy's equivalent (the "2087" sonar launched in December 2004) have so far failed. The European Parliament on the other hand has requested that EU members refrain from using the powerful sonar system until an environmental impact study has been carried out.

Bottlenose whale - 8-15m in length

Source

Northern Bottlenose whale - 8-15m in length

On 20 January 2006, a Northern Bottlenose Whale was spotted in Central London in the River Thames. The River Thames whale reached as far up river as Albert Bridge. It was moved onto a barge and rescuers hoped to take it out to sea, but it died following a convulsion on 21 January during its rescue. Its skeleton is now in the Natural History Museum in London.

Other environmental disturbances

Conservationists are concerned that seismic testing used for oil and gas exploration may also damage the hearing and echolocation capabilities of whales. They also suggest that disturbances in magnetic fields caused by the testing may also be responsible for beaching. [8]

Some scientists and environmentalists suggest that some whale species are also endangered due to a number of other human activities such as the unregulated use of fishing gear, that often catch anything that swims into them, collisions with ships, toxins and the combination of toxins POPs among other threats.

Whales are also threatened by climate change and global warming. As the Antarctic Ocean warms, krill populations, that are the main food source of some species of whales, reduce dramatically, being replaced by jelly like salps. I

Whales in culture

  • A kenning in Beowulf refers to the sea as the "whale-road".
  • Procopius mentions a whale, nicknamed Porphyrio by the Byzantines, who depleted fisheries in the Sea of Marmara.
  • The King James Version of the Bible mentions whales four times: "And God created great whales" (Genesis 1:21); "Am I a sea, or a whale, that thou settest a watch over me? (Job 7:12); "Thou art like a young lion of the nations, and thou art as a whale in the seas (Ezekiel 32:2); and "For as Jonas [sic] was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth" (Matthew 12:40).
    • Nevertheless, the passages in question do not unambiguously refer to whales; modern translations tend to use other terms; for example the New International Version uses "creatures of the sea"; "monster of the deep"; "monster"; and "huge fish" respectively.
    • The story of Jonah being swallowed by a whale is mentioned in the Qur'an as well.
  • A whaling voyage is the plot of Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick. In the book, Melville classed whales as "a spouting fish with a horizontal tail", this despite science suggesting otherwise the previous century. (His narrator acknowledged "the grounds upon which Linnaeus would fain have banished the whales from the waters" but writes that when he presented them to "my friends Simeon Macey and Charley Coffin, of Nantucket ... they united in the opinion that the reasons set forth were altogether insufficient. Charley profanely hinted they were humbug" (Chapter 32).) Melville's book is a classic of American literature: part adventure novel, part metaphysical allegory, and part natural history; it is essentially a summary of 19th century knowledge about the biology, ecology and cultural significance of the whale.
  • Some cultures associate some level of divinity with the whale, such as in some places in Ghana and the Vietnamese, who occasionally hold funerals for beached whales, a throwback to Vietnam's ancient sea-based Austro-Asiatic culture.
  • Festivals celebrating whales have sprung in both Sitka and Kodiak Alaska. They feature speakers on marine biology and celebrate the creatures with art, music, whale watching cruises, and symposiums.
  • In the British series Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy a Whale, alongside a bowl of Petunias, is created upon the usage of the Infinite Improbability Drive

Ginkgo-toothed Beaked Whale - Can reach up to 4.9 m in length

Source

Ginkgo-toothed Beaked Whale - Can reach up to 4.9 m in length
 

References and Notes

Wiki Source

Comments

What those Japanese whale fleets are doing is awful


 

Have Your Say

Spam abuse at page base

Text and images from Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. under the GNU Free Documentation License  - Disclaimers & Creative Commons media & Other Sources - Please verify information from other sources as no liability is accepted on contents..- Published by Y2U.co.uk. The design and concept of this website is copyrighted. - Privacy and Terms of Use

back to top

Spam Abuse Comment Input IP Address 195.225.177.48