) is a big cat, a feline in the
is the only Panthera
species found in the Americas. The jaguar is the
third-largest feline after the tiger and the lion, and the largest in the
Western Hemisphere. The jaguar's present range extends from Southern US and
Mexico across much of Central America and south to Paraguay and northern
Argentina. Apart from a known and possibly breeding population in Arizona
(southeast of Tucson), the cat has largely been extirpated from the United
States since the early 20th century.
This spotted cat most closely resembles
the leopard physically, although it is usually larger and of sturdier build and
its behavioral and habitat characteristics are closer to those of the tiger.
While dense rainforest is its preferred habitat, the jaguar will range across a
variety of forested and open terrain. It is strongly associated with the
presence of water and is notable, along with the tiger, as a feline that enjoys
The jaguar is largely a solitary, opportunistic, stalk-and-ambush
predator at the top of the food chain (an apex predator). It is a keystone
species, playing an important role in stabilizing ecosystems and regulating the
populations of the animals it hunts. The jaguar has an exceptionally powerful
bite, even relative to the other big cats.
This allows it to pierce the shells of armoured reptiles
and to employ an unusual killing method: it bites directly through the skull of
prey between the ears to deliver a fatal bite to the brain.
The jaguar is a near threatened species and its numbers are declining.
Threats include habitat loss and fragmentation. While international trade in
jaguars or their parts is prohibited, the cat is still frequently killed by
humans, particularly in conflicts with ranchers and farmers in South America.
Although reduced, its range remains large; given its historical distribution,
the jaguar has featured prominently in the mythology of numerous indigenous
American cultures, including that of the Maya and Aztec.
It comes to English from one of the Tupi–Guarani languages, presumably the
Amazonian trade language Tupinambá, via Portuguese jaguar.
The Tupian word, yaguara "beast", sometimes translated as "dog",
is used for any carnivorous mammal.
The specific word for jaguar is yaguareté, with the suffix -eté
meaning "real" or "true".
The first component of its taxonomic designation, Panthera, is Latin,
from the Greek word for leopard, πάνθηρ, the type species for the genus.
This has been said to derive from the παν- "all" and
θήρ from θηρευτής "predator", meaning "predator of all" (animals), though this may be
a folk etymology—it may
instead be ultimately of Sanskrit origin, from pundarikam, the Sanskrit
word for "tiger".
Onca is the Portuguese onça, with the cedilla dropped for
typographical reasons, found in English as ounce for the Snow Leopard, Uncia uncia. It derives from the Latin
lyncea lynx, with the letter L
confused with the definite article (Italian lonza, Old French l'once).
In many Central and South American countries, the cat is referred to as el
tigre ("the tiger").
The jaguar, Panthera onca, is the only existent New World member of
the Panthera genus. DNA evidence shows that the lion, tiger, leopard,
jaguar, snow leopard, and clouded leopard share a common ancestor and that this
group is between six and ten million years old;
the fossil record points to the emergence of Panthera just two to 3.8
million years ago.
Phylogenetic studies generally have shown that the clouded leopard (Neofelis
nebulosa) is basal to this group.
The position of the remaining species varies between studies and is effectively
Based on morphological evidence, British zoologist Reginald Pocock concluded
that the jaguar is most closely related to the leopard.
However, DNA evidence is inconclusive and the position of the jaguar relative to
the other species varies between studies.
Fossils of extinct Panthera species, such as the European Jaguar (Panthera
gombaszoegensis) and the American Lion (Panthera atrox), show
characteristics of both the lion and the jaguar.
Analysis of jaguar mitochondrial DNA has dated the species lineage to between
280,000 and 510,000 years ago, later than suggested by fossil records.
A Peruvian jaguar, known as an otorongo.
The last taxonomic delineation of the jaguar subspecies was performed by
Pocock in 1939. Based on geographic origins and skull morphology, he recognized
eight subspecies. However, he did not have access to sufficient specimens to
critically evaluate all subspecies, and he expressed doubt about the status of
several. Later consideration of his work suggested only three subspecies should
Recent studies have also failed to find evidence for well defined subspecies,
and are no longer recognized.
Larson (1997) studied the morphological variation in the jaguar and showed that
there is clinal north–south variation, but also that the differentiation within
the supposed subspecies is larger than that between them and thus does not
warrant subspecies subdivision.
A genetic study by Eizirik and coworkers in 2001 confirmed the absence of a
clear geographical subspecies structure, although they found that major
geographical barriers such as the Amazon River limited the exchange of genes
between the different populations.
A subsequent, more detailed, study confirmed the predicted population structure
within the Colombian jaguars.
Pocock's subspecies divisions are still regularly listed in general
descriptions of the cat.
Seymour grouped these in three subspecies.
- Panthera onca onca: Venezuela through the Amazon, including
- P. onca peruviana (Peruvian Jaguar): Coastal Peru
- P. onca hernandesii (Mexican Jaguar): Western Mexico –
- P. onca centralis (Central American Jaguar): El Salvador to
- P. onca arizonensis (Arizonan Jaguar): Southern Arizona to
- P. onca veraecrucis: Central Texas to Southeastern Mexico
- P. onca goldmani (Goldman's Jaguar): Yucatán Peninsula to
Belize and Guatemala
- P. onca palustris (the largest subspecies, weighing more than 135 kg
or 300 lb): The Pantanal
regions of Mato Grosso & Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, along the Paraguay River
into Paraguay and northeastern Argentina.
The Mammal Species of the World continues to recognize nine
subspecies, the eight subspecies above and additionally P. o. paraguensis.
Biology and behavior
The jaguar is a compact and well-muscled animal. There are significant
variations in size and weight: weights are normally in the range of 56–96
kilograms (124–211 lb). Larger males have been recorded at 160 kilograms
(350 lb) (roughly
matching a tigress or lioness), and smaller ones have extremely low weights of
36 kilograms (80 lb).
Females are typically 10–20% smaller than males. The
length of the cat varies from 1.62–1.83 metres (5.3–6 ft), and its tail may add
a further 75 centimeters (30 in). It stands about 67–76 centimeters (27–30 in)
tall at the shoulders.
Further variations in size have been observed across regions and habitats,
with size tending to increase from the north to south. A study of the jaguar in
the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve on the Mexican Pacific coast, showed
ranges of just about 50 kilograms (110 lb), about the size of the cougar.
By contrast, a study of the Jaguar in the Brazilian Pantanal region found
average weights of 100 kilograms (220 lb) and weights of 136 kilograms (300 lb)
or more are not uncommon in old males.
Forest jaguars are frequently darker and considerably smaller than those found
in open areas (the Pantanal is an open wetland basin), possibly due to the
smaller numbers of large herbivorous prey in forest areas.
A short and stocky limb structure makes the jaguar adept at climbing,
crawling and swimming.
The head is robust and the jaw extremely powerful. The jaguar has the strongest
bite of all felids, capable of biting down with 2,000 pounds-force (8,900 N).
This is twice the strength of a lion and the second strongest of all mammals
after the spotted hyena; this strength is an adaptation that allows the jaguar
to pierce turtle shells.
A comparative study of bite force adjusted for body size ranked it as the top
felid, alongside the clouded leopard and ahead of the lion and tiger.
It has been reported that "an individual jaguar can drag a 360 kg (800 lb) bull
8 m (25 ft) in its jaws and pulverize the heaviest bones".
The jaguar hunts wild animals weighing up to 300 kilograms (660 lb) in dense
jungle, and its short and sturdy physique is thus an adaptation to its prey and
The base coat of the jaguar is generally a tawny yellow, but can
range to reddish-brown and black. The cat is covered in rosettes for camouflage
in its jungle habitat. The spots vary over individual coats and between
individual Jaguars: rosettes may include one or several dots, and the shape of
the dots varies. The spots on the head and neck are generally solid, as are
those on the tail, where they may merge to form a band. The underbelly, throat
and outer surface of the legs and lower flanks are white.
While the jaguar closely resembles the leopard, it is sturdier and heavier,
and the two animals can be distinguished by their rosettes: the rosettes on a
jaguar's coat are larger, fewer in number, usually darker, and have thicker
lines and small spots in the middle that the leopard lacks. Jaguars also have
rounder heads and shorter, stockier limbs compared to leopards.
Colour morphism occurs in the species. A near-black melanistic form occurs
regularly. Jaguars with melanism appear entirely black, although their spots are
still visible on close examination.
The black morph is less common than the spotted form but, at about six
percent of the population, it
is several orders of magnitude above the rate of mutation. Hence is being
supported by selection. There is some evidence that the melanism allele is
dominant. The black
form may be an example of heterozygote advantage; breeding in captivity is not
yet conclusive on this.
Melanistic Jaguars are informally known as black panthers but, like all forms
of polymorphism, do not form a separate species.
Extremely rare albino individuals, sometimes called white panthers, also
occur among jaguars, as with the other big cats.
As usual with albinos in the wild, selection keeps the frequency close to the
rate of mutation.
Jaguar females reach sexual maturity at about two years of age, and males at
three or four. The cat is believed to mate throughout the year in the wild,
although births may increase when prey is plentiful.
Research on captive male jaguars supports the year-round mating hypothesis, with
no seasonal variation in semen traits and ejaculatory quality; low reproductive
success has also been observed in captivity.
Female estrous is 6–17 days out of a full 37-day cycle, and females will
advertise fertility with urinary scent marks and increased vocalization.
Both sexes will range more widely than usual during courtship.
Mating pairs separate after the act, and females provide all parenting. The
gestation period lasts 93–105 days; females give birth to up to four cubs, and
most commonly to two. The mother will not tolerate the presence of males after
the birth of cubs, given a risk of infanticide; this behaviour is also found in
The young are born blind, gaining sight after two weeks. Cubs are weaned at
three months but remain in the birth den for six months before leaving to
accompany their mother on hunts.
They will continue in their mother's company for one to two years before leaving
to establish a territory for themselves.
Young males are at first nomadic,
jostling with their older counterparts until they succeed in claiming a
territory. Typical lifespan in the wild is estimated at around 12–15 years; in
captivity, the jaguar lives up to 23 years, placing it among the longest-lived
|Jaguar at Edinburgh Zoo
Like most cats, the jaguar is solitary outside mother-cub groups. Adults
generally meet only to court and mate (though limited non-courting socialization
has been observed anecdotally)
and carve out large territories for themselves.
Female territories, which range
from 25 to 40 square kilometers in size, may overlap, but the animals generally
avoid one another. Male ranges cover roughly twice as much area, varying in size
with the availability of game and space, and do not overlap.
The jaguar uses scrape marks, urine, and feces to mark its territory.
Like the other big cats, the jaguar is capable of roaring (the male more
powerfully) and does so to warn territorial and mating competitors away;
intensive bouts of counter-calling between individuals have been observed in the
often resembles a repetitive cough, and they may also vocalize mews and grunts.
Mating fights between males occur, but are rare, and aggression avoidance
behaviour has been observed in the wild.
When it occurs, conflict is typically over territory: a male's range may
encompass that of two or three females, and he will not tolerate intrusions by
other adult males.
The jaguar is often described as nocturnal, but is more specifically
crepuscular (peak activity around dawn and dusk). Both sexes hunt, but males
travel farther each day than females, befitting their larger territories. The
jaguar may hunt during the day if game is available and is a relatively
energetic feline, spending as much as 50–60% of its time active.
The jaguar's elusive nature and the inaccessibility of much of its preferred
habitat make it a difficult animal to sight, let alone study.
Hunting and diet
Like all cats, the jaguar is an obligate carnivore, feeding only on meat. It
is an opportunistic hunter and its diet encompasses 87 species.
The jaguar prefers large prey and will take adult caiman (a form of small
alligator), deer, capybara,
tapirs, peccaries, dogs, foxes, and sometimes even anacondas.
However, the cat will eat any small species that can be caught, including frogs,
mice, birds, fish, sloths, monkeys, and turtles; a study conducted in Cockscomb
Basin Wildlife Sanctuary in Belize, for example, revealed that jaguars there had
a diet that consisted primarily of armadillos and pacas.
Some jaguars will also take domestic livestock, including adult cattle and
While the jaguar employs the deep-throat bite-and-suffocation technique
typical among Panthera, it prefers a killing method unique amongst cats:
it pierces directly through the temporal bones of the skull between the ears of
prey (especially the capybara) with its canine teeth, piercing the brain.
This may be an adaptation to "cracking open" turtle shells; following the late
Pleistocene extinctions, armoured reptiles such as turtles would have formed an
abundant prey base for the jaguar.
The skull bite is employed with mammals in particular; with reptiles such as
caiman, the jaguar may leap on to the back of the prey and sever the cervical
vertebrae, immobilizing the target.
While capable of cracking turtle shells, the
jaguar may simply reach into the shell and scoop out the flesh.
With prey such as smaller dogs, a paw swipe to the skull may be sufficient in
The jaguar is a stalk-and-ambush rather than a chase predator. The cat will
walk slowly down forest paths, listening for and stalking prey before rushing or
The jaguar attacks from cover and usually from a target's blind spot
with a quick pounce; the species' ambushing abilities are considered nearly
peerless in the animal kingdom by both indigenous people and field researchers,
and are probably a product of its role as an apex predator in several different
The ambush may include leaping into water after prey, as a jaguar
is quite capable of carrying a large kill while swimming; its strength is such
that carcasses as large as a heifer can be hauled up a tree to avoid flood
On killing prey, the jaguar will drag the carcass to a thicket or other
secluded spot. It begins eating at the neck and chest, rather than the
midsection. The heart and lungs are consumed, followed by the shoulders.
The daily food requirement of a 34 kilogram animal, at the extreme low end of
the species' weight range, has been estimated at 1.4 kilograms.
For captive animals in the 50–60 kilogram range, more than 2 kilograms of meat
daily is recommended.
wild, consumption is naturally more erratic; wild cats expend considerable
energy in the capture and kill of prey, and may consume up to 25 kilograms of
meat at one feeding, followed by periods of famine.
Unlike all other species in the Panthera genus, jaguars very rarely
Most of the scant cases where jaguars turn to taking a human show
that the animal is either old with damaged teeth or is wounded.
Sometimes, if scared, jaguars in captivity may lash out at zookeepers.
It has been an American cat since crossing the Bering Land Bridge during the
Pleistocene epoch; the immediate ancestor of modern animals is Panthera onca
augusta, which was larger than the contemporary cat.
Its present range extends from Mexico, through Central America and into South
America, including much of Amazonian Brazil.
The countries included in this range are Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil,
Colombia, Costa Rica (particularly on the Osa Peninsula), Ecuador, French
Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru,
Suriname, United States and Venezuela.
The jaguar is now extinct in El Salvador
and Uruguay. It occurs in
the 400 km² Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary in Belize, the 5,300 km² Sian
Ka'an Biosphere Reserve in Mexico, the approximately 15,000 km² Manú National
Park in Peru, the approximately 26,000 km² Xingu National Park in Brazil, and
numerous other reserves throughout its range.
The inclusion of the United States in the list is based on occasional
sightings in the southwest, particularly in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. In
the early 20th century, the jaguar's range extended as far north as the Grand
Canyon, and as far west as Southern California.
The jaguar is a protected species in the United States under the Endangered
Species Act, which has stopped the shooting of the animal for its pelt. In 2004,
wildlife officials in Arizona photographed and documented jaguars in the
southern part of the state. For any permanent population to thrive, protection
from killing, an adequate prey base, and connectivity with Mexican populations
On 25 February
2009 a 118 lb Jaguar was caught, radio-collared and released in an area
southwest of Tucson, Arizona; this is farther north than had previously been
expected and represents a sign that there may be a permanent breeding population
of Jaguars within southern Arizona.
It was later confirmed that the animal is
indeed the same male individual (known as 'Macho B') that was photographed in
2004 and is now the oldest known Jaguar in the wild (approximately 15 years
old.) On Monday 2 March 2009,
Macho B, which is the only jaguar spotted in the U.S. in more than a decade, was
recaptured and euthanized after he was found to be suffering from kidney
Completion of the United States–Mexico barrier as currently proposed will
reduce the viability of any population currently residing in the United States,
by reducing gene flow with Mexican populations, and prevent any further
northward expansion for the species.
The historic range of the species included much of the southern half of the
United States, and in the south extended much farther to cover most of the South
In total, its northern range has receded 1,000 kilometers
southward and its southern range 2,000 km northward. Ice age fossils of the
jaguar, dated between 40,000 and 11,500 years ago, have been discovered in the
United States, including some at an important site as far north as Missouri.
Fossil evidence shows jaguars of up to 190 kg (420 lb), much larger than the
contemporary average for the animal.
The habitat of the cat includes the rain forests of South and Central
America, open, seasonally flooded wetlands, and dry grassland terrain. Of these
habitats, the jaguar much prefers dense forest;
the cat has lost range most rapidly in regions of drier habitat, such as the
Argentinian pampas, the arid grasslands of Mexico, and the southwestern United
The cat will
range across tropical, subtropical, and dry deciduous forests (including,
historically, oak forests in the United States). The jaguar is strongly
associated with water and it often prefers to live by rivers, swamps, and in
dense rainforest with thick cover for stalking prey. Jaguars have been found at
elevations as high as 3,800 m, but they typically avoid montane forest and are
not found in the high plateau of central Mexico or in the Andes.
Substantial evidence exists that there is also a colony of non-native
melanistic leopards or jaguars inhabiting the rainforests around Sydney,
Australia. A local report compiled statements from over 450 individuals
recounting their stories of sighting large black cats in the area and
confidential NSW Government documents regarding the matter proved wildlife
authorities were so concerned about the big cats and the danger to humans, they
commissioned an expert to catch it.
The three-day hunt later failed, but
ecologist Johannes J. Bauer warned: "Difficult as it seems to accept, the most
likely explanation is the presence of a large, feline predator. In this area,
[it is] most likely a leopard, less likely a jaguar."
|The Pantanal, Brazil in flood condition, a critical jaguar range area.
The adult jaguar is an apex predator, meaning that it exists at the top of
its food chain and is not preyed on in the wild. The jaguar has also been termed
a keystone species, as it is assumed, through controlling the population levels
of prey such as herbivorous and granivorous mammals, apex felids maintain the
structural integrity of forest systems.
However, accurately determining what effect species like the jaguar have on
ecosystems is difficult, because data must be compared from regions where the
species is absent as well as its current habitats, while controlling for the
effects of human activity. It is accepted that mid-sized prey species undergo
population increases in the absence of the keystone predators and it has been
hypothesized that this has cascading negative effects.
However, field work has shown this may be natural variability and that the
population increases may not be sustained. Thus, the keystone predator
hypothesis is not favoured by all scientists.
The jaguar also has an effect on other predators. The jaguar and the cougar,
the next largest feline of the Americas, are often sympatric (related species
sharing overlapping territory) and have often been studied in conjunction. Where
sympatric with the jaguar, the cougar is smaller than normal and is smaller than
the local jaguars.
The jaguar tends to take larger prey and the cougar smaller,
reducing the latter's size.
This situation may be advantageous to the cougar. Its broader prey niche,
including its ability to take smaller prey, may give it an advantage over the
jaguar in human-altered landscapes;
while both are classified as near-threatened species, the cougar has a
significantly larger current distribution.
Jaguar populations are rapidly declining. The animal is considered Near
Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources, meaning it may
be threatened with extinction in the near future. The loss of parts of its
range, including its virtual elimination from its historic northern areas and
the increasing fragmentation of the remaining range, have contributed to this
The 1960s saw particularly significant declines, with more than 15,000
jaguar skins brought out of the Brazilian Amazon yearly; the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) of 1973 brought about a sharp
decline in the pelt trade.
Detailed work performed under the auspices of the Wildlife Conservation Society
reveal that the animal has lost 37% of its historic range, with its status
unknown in an additional 18%.
More encouragingly, the probability of long-term
survival was considered high in 70% of its remaining range, particularly in the
Amazon basin and the adjoining Gran Chaco and Pantanal.
The major risks to the jaguar include deforestation across its habitat,
increasing competition for food with human beings,
poaching, hurricanes in northern parts of its range, and the behaviour of
ranchers who will often kill the cat where it preys on livestock.
to the prey, the jaguar has been shown to take cattle as a large portion of its
diet; while land clearance for grazing is a problem for the species, the jaguar
population may have increased when cattle were first introduced to South America
as the animals took advantage of the new prey base. This willingness to take
livestock has induced ranch owners to hire full-time jaguar hunters, and the cat
is often shot on sight.
The jaguar is regulated as an Appendix I species under CITES: all
international trade in jaguars or their parts is prohibited. All hunting of
jaguars is prohibited in Argentina, Belize, Colombia, French Guiana, Honduras,
Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, the United States (where it is listed as
endangered under the Endangered Species Act), Uruguay and Venezuela.
jaguars is restricted to "problem animals" in Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala,
Mexico and Peru, while trophy hunting is still permitted in Bolivia. The species
has no legal protection in Ecuador or Guyana.
Current conservation efforts often focus on educating ranch owners and
The jaguar is generally defined as an umbrella species – a species whose home
range and habitat requirements are sufficiently broad that, if protected,
numerous other species of smaller range will also be protected.
Umbrella species serve as "mobile links" at the landscape scale, in the jaguar's
case through predation. Conservation organizations may thus focus on providing
viable, connected habitat for the jaguar, with the knowledge that other species
will also benefit.
Given the inaccessibility of much of the species' range—particularly the
central Amazon—estimating jaguar numbers is difficult. Researchers typically
focus on particular bioregions, and thus species-wide analysis is scant. In
1991, 600–1,000 (the highest total) were estimated to be living in Belize.
year earlier, 125–180 jaguars were estimated to be living in Mexico's 4,000
square kilometer (2400 mi²) Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, with another 350 in the
state of Chiapas.
The adjoining Maya Biosphere Reserve in Guatemala, with an
area measuring 15,000 square kilometers (9,000 mi²), may have 465–550 animals.
Work employing GPS–telemetry in 2003 and 2004 found densities of only six to
seven jaguars per 100 square kilometres in the critical Pantanal region,
compared with 10 to 11 using traditional methods; this suggests that widely used
sampling methods may inflate the actual numbers of cats.
On 7 January 2008 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Director H. Dale
Hall approved a decision by the George W. Bush Administration to abandon jaguar
recovery as a federal goal under the Endangered Species Act.
Some critics of the
decision said that the jaguar is being sacrificed for the government's new
border fence, which is to be built along many of the cat's typical crossings
between the United States and Mexico.
In the past, conservation of jaguars sometimes occurred through the
protection of jaguar "hotspots". These hotspots were described as Jaguar
Conservation Units, and were large areas populated by about 50 jaguars.
some researchers recently determined that, in order to maintain a robust sharing
of the jaguar gene pool necessary for maintaining the species, it is important
that the jaguars are interconnected. To facilitate this, a new project, the Paseo del Jaguar, has been established to connect several jaguar hotspots.
In mythology and
In pre-Columbian Central and South America, the jaguar has long been a symbol
of power and strength. Among the Andean cultures, a jaguar cult disseminated by
the early Chavín culture became accepted over most of what is today Peru by 900
BC. The later Moche culture of Northern Peru used the jaguar as a symbol of
power in many of their ceramics.
In Mesoamerica, the Olmec—an early and influential culture of the Gulf Coast
region roughly contemporaneous with the Chavín—developed a distinct
"were-jaguar" motif of sculptures and figurines showing stylized jaguars or
humans with jaguar characteristics.
In the later Maya civilization, the jaguar
was believed to facilitate communication between the living and the dead and to
protect the royal household. The Maya saw these powerful felines as their
companions in the spiritual world, and a number of Maya rulers bore names that
incorporated the Mayan word for jaguar (b'alam in many of the Mayan
The Aztec civilization shared this image of the jaguar as the
representative of the ruler and as a warrior. The Aztecs formed an elite warrior
class known as the Jaguar Knights. In Aztec mythology, the jaguar was considered
to be the totem animal of the powerful deity Tezcatlipoca.
The jaguar has had importance in Brazil, where the indigenous peoples of
Brazil used its fat.[citation
The jaguar and its name is widely used as a symbol in contemporary culture.
It is the national animal of Guyana, and is featured in its coat of arms.
The flag of the Department of Amazonas, a Colombian department, features a black
jaguar silhouette pouncing towards a hunter.
The jaguar also appears in banknotes of Brazilian Real.
Jaguar is widely used as a product name, most prominently for a luxury car
brand. The name has been adopted by sports franchises, including the NFL's
Jacksonville Jaguars and the Mexican football club Jaguares de Chiapas.
winning Mexican rock band "Jaguares" were also influenced by the magnificent
animal to choose their band name. The crest of Argentina's national federation
in rugby union features a jaguar; however, because of a historic accident, the
country's national team is nicknamed Los Pumas. The country's "A"
(second-level) national team in that sport now bears the Jaguars name.
A melanistic jaguar loose in a South American city is the central figure in
the 1942 novel Black Alibi by Cornell Woolrich.
In the spirit of the ancient Mayan culture, the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City
adopted a red jaguar as the first official Olympic mascot.
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