The horse (Equus caballus or Equus ferus caballus) is a
large ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus.
Horses have long been one of the most economically important domesticated
animals, and have played an important role in the transport of people and cargo
for thousands of years. While isolated domestication may have occurred as early
as 10,000 years ago, clear evidence of widespread horse use by humans dates to
around 2000 B.C.E.
Like few other animals, horses can be ridden, either with or without a
saddle. They can cvalso be harnessed to pull objects like wheeled vehicles or
ploughs. In some cultures, horses are a source of food, often horse meat and
sometimes milk; in other cultures it is taboo to eat them.
Today, in wealthy countries, horses are predominantly kept for leisure and
sporting pursuits. However, around the world they continue to fulfil a wide
range of economic functions.
Humans have bred horses for millennia, as with dogs, resulting in many
different breeds. Some are well-known for particular qualities or abilities; for
example, thoroughbreds for their racing speed.
Biology of the horse
Comment "Horses are
awesome if you would like to play a fun game with them u can put a carrot in your pocket for them to find or make them look for u by colors all around"
Have your say
The domestic horse can live to 20 or 30 years old. The mare is pregnant for
11 months and gives birth to one foal (male: colt, female: filly). They reach
sexual maturity at 1-2 years old. The size of horses varies considerably,
depending on the breed: light horses such as Arabians, Morgans, Quarter Horses,
Paints and Thoroughbreds weigh up to 1300lbs (about 595kg), whereas heavy or
draft horses such as Clydesdale, Draft, Percherons, and Shire horses can weigh
up to 2000lbs (about 907kg). Ponies can be much tinier, down to the size of a
Evolution of the horse
Horses and other equids are odd-toed ungulates of the order Perissodactyla,
a relatively ancient group of browsing and grazing animals that first arose less
than 10 million years after the dinosaurs became extinct. Perissodactyls were
the dominant group of large terrestrial browsing animals until the Miocene
(about 20 million years ago), when even-toed ungulates, with stomachs better
adapted to digesting grass, began to outcompete them.
All equids are part of the family Equidae, which dates back
approximately 54 million years to the Eocene period. At one time there were
twelve families of odd-toed ungulates, though today only three survive; tapirs
and rhinoceroses are the closest living relatives of the modern horse.
The genus Equus, to which all living equids belong, evolved a few million
years ago. Examples of extinct horse genera include: Propalaeotherium,
Mesohippus, Miohippus, Orohippus, Pliohippus, Anchitherium, Merychippus,
Parahippus, Hipparion, and Hippidion.
Horses as a species are believed by scientists to have first evolved in what
is now North America. Horse evolution was characterized by a reduction in the
number of toes, from five per foot, to three per foot, to only one toe per foot
(late Miocene 5.3 million years ago); essentially, the animal was standing on
tiptoe. One of the first true horse species was the tiny Hyracotherium, also
known as Eohippus, "the dawn horse", which had 4 toes on each front foot
(missing the thumb) and 3 toes on each back foot (missing toes 1 and 5). Over
about five million years, this early equid evolved into the Orohippus. The 5th
fingers vanished, and new grinding teeth evolved. This was significant in that
it signalled a transition to improved browsing of tougher plant material,
allowing grazing of not just leafy plants but also tougher plains grasses. Thus
the proto-horses changed from leaf-eating forest-dwellers to grass-eating
inhabitants of the Great Plains.
Complete Horse Riding Manual By William Micklem
book is useful for every standard of rider, from beginner to
seasoned veteran- especially the chapter on how to fall off
correctly! There are chapters on basic riding, training the horse,
and the specialist disciplines of dressage, show jumping and cross
country. There are also excellent sections on the rider's balance
Domestication of the horse and surviving wild species
Theories on domestication
Competing theories exist as to the time and place of initial domestication.
The earliest evidence for the domestication of the horse comes from Central Asia
and dates to approximately 4,000 BCE. Archaeological finds such as the Sintashta
chariot burials show how far this domestication had progressed.
Wild species continued to survive into historical times and, arguably, until
today. For example, the Forest Horse (Equus ferus silvaticus, also called
the Diluvial Horse) is thought to have evolved into Equus ferus germanicus,
and may have contributed to the development of the heavy horses of northern
Europe, such as Ardennais.
The tarpan, Equus ferus ferus, became extinct in 1880. Its genetic
line is lost, but its phenotype has been recreated by a "breeding back" process,
in which living domesticated horses with primitive features were repeatedly
interbred. Thanks to the efforts of the brothers Lutz Heck (director of the
Berlin zoo) and Heinz Heck (director of Munich Tierpark Hellabrunn), the
resulting Wild Polish Horse or Konik more closely resembles the
tarpan than any other living horse.
Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), a rare Asian species, is
the only true wild horse alive today. Mongolians know it as the taki,
while the Kirghiz people call it a kirtag. Small wild breeding
populations of this animal, named after the Russian explorer Przewalski, exist
in Mongolia. 
Wild animals, whose ancestors have never undergone domestication, are
distinct from feral ones, who had domesticated ancestors but were born
and live in the wild. Several populations of feral horses exist, including those
in the West of the United States and Canada (often called "mustangs"), and in
parts of Australia ("brumbies") and New Zealand ("Kaimanawa horses"). Isolated
feral populations are often named for their geographic location: Namibia has its
Namib Desert Horses; Sable Island Horses reside in Nova Scotia, Canada; New
Forest ponies have been part of Hampshire, England for a thousand years. Feral
horses may provide useful insights into the behaviour of ancestral wild horses.
Horse that likes the breeze
Other modern equids
Other members of the horse family include zebras, donkeys, and onagers. The
Donkey, Burro or Domestic Ass, Equus asinus, like the horse, has many
breeds. A mule is a hybrid of a male ass (jack) and a mare and is infertile. A
hinny is the less common hybrid of a female ass (jenny) and a stallion. Breeders
have begun crossing various species of zebra with mares or female asses to
produce "zebra mules" (zorses, and zonkeys (also called zedonks)). This will
probably remain a novelty hybrid as these individuals tend to inherit some of
the nervous difficult nature of their zebra parent, but they may inherit the
zebra's resistance to nagana pest: zorses, also called zebroids, have been used
in Central African game parks for light haulage.
Horses are prey animals with flight or fight instinct. Their first response
to threat is to flee, although they are known to stand their ground and defend
in cases where less capable horses would be left exposed, such as when a foal
would be threatened. Horse people commonly say that inside every domestic horse
is a wild horse. Through selective breeding, some horses have been made more
docile, but most sport horse breeds are based on the principle of preserving the
natural qualities that existed in horses that were taken from wild herds
hundreds of years ago.
Horses as herd animals
Horses are highly social and intelligent herd animals. Like many other herd
animals, their society is derived, or has evolved from survival instincts. At
the centre of the herd is the alpha or dominant mare. The center of the herd is
the safest because it is further away from predators than any other part. The
edge of the herd is where the lowest on the social order are found. Punishment
is delivered in the form of expulsion from the herd temporarily or even
Herds are made up of mares, their foals, and immature horses of both sexes.
Survival of the species dictates that females and foals are of primary
importance, because they give and nurture life. Only a few males are needed --
very temporarily -- to continue the species. The herd of twenty mares could
produce twenty foals in one year. They only need one or more stallions to
impregnate all of them.
When colts become mature stallions, they leave to roam in small bachelor
herds. They are no longer welcome in the main herd. Some of these horses may
battle for the privilege of the most dangerous position in the equine world:
The dominant stallion endures a somewhat quixotic existence. He lives on the
periphery of the herd, exposed to predators and other bachelors who will fight
him for that role. In stark contrast to the mythology of the stallion and his
(ownership implied) harem, he has no value to the herd. He is totally
dispensable since he is easily replaced. The male dominance hierarchy ensures an
immediate replacement by a strong and healthy successor at any time.
As with many animals that live in large groups, establishment of a stable
hierarchy or pecking order is important to smooth group functioning. Contention
for dominance can be risky since one well-placed kick to a leg could cripple
another horse to such an extent that it would be defenceless, exposed, and
possibly unable to get to water. Survival dictates that the herd members
ultimately cooperate and stick together. The alpha or dominant mare exercises
control over herd members to moderate aggressive behaviour.
Horses and humans
To a wild horse, humans are treated as an object of no consequence. However,
horses are innately curious and may investigate any creature that is interesting
but not threatening. Any domesticated horse will have had some experience with
humans and may act accordingly, e.g. people bring food or possibly have treats.
The ability of humans to work in cooperation with the horse is based on the
strong social bonds that horses have with each other. Horses do not like to be
separated from the herd, because to be alone is to be exposed to predators on
all sides. Horse training principles are based upon having the horse accept a
human as the dominant herd member, not through force, but by virtue of ability
and confidence. It is those attributes that are highly valued because they point
the way to survival. A horse that is afraid more than necessary will expend
energy needlessly and may not be able to escape when the threat is real. In
pastures, it is the rule that horses tend to gravitate around the most mature
and confident members.
People who train horses first have to educate them that normal herd behaviour
is inappropriate for people. The biting and shadow boxing (rearing, striking)
that is common among males in particular could be injurious or fatal to people.
This is not aggressive behavior to a horse, but normal play. Even when trained,
horses test boundaries and challenge dominance. They may nip or try other things
that they have been trained not to do. Without consistent training most horses
will revert back to their untrained ways.
These insights are based upon natural horsemanship principles. The first
known instances of natural horsemanship were written by Xenophon in On
Horsemanship. Lost during the Dark Ages, natural horsemanship was reborn
again during the Renaissance in the schools that trained horses for military
cavalry. There is an unbroken line from these trainers and institutions to the
Olympic equestrian sport of dressage. This discipline is still the foundation
which other equestrian sports such as eventing and stadium jumping build upon.
One of the most revered institutions of the art of dressage is the Spanish
Riding School of Vienna.
Horses are creatures of habit and have excellent memories, which make
consistent training the most valuable component of the horse. Sport horse foals
with top bloodlines can be bought relatively cheaply compared to those with
training. Once started under saddle with some demonstrable rideability, the
price easily triples.
Horses within the human economy
Horses in rich countries are primarily kept for leisure or sport purposes.
Around the world, they play a role within human economies.
Horses for leisure
Many countries use horses for leisure. Some countries are more profound then
others at producing quality horses and using them for leisure and sport. Such
as: Britain, Germany, Australia, Denmark and Spain. When the British parliament
banned fox-hunting, countryside stables prophesied a disastrous effect on their
industry. Australia is known for their well mannered, elegant and hardy
Australian stock horses and fast racing Thoroughbreds. Germany produces fine
quality Holsteiner horses for dressage, stunning Friesians for harness and
dressage, Percherons mainly for harness and Warmbloods for eventing. Spain
breeds the beautiful and magnificent Andalusians (Pura Raza Espanola) and
Lipizzaner horses, because of their beauty and agility, are used mainly for
dressage and High School work in Vienna and other places. Denmark produces
similar horse to Germany, while Britain breeds fast Thoroughbreds, heavy horses
and an array of tough ponies, such as the Dartmoor, Exmoor and Welsh mountain.
Many people find being around horses soothing and therapeutic. Therefore many
people may not have horses for work or play, they sometimes simply have
companion horses or breed them.
Horses for sport
This is big business, with television deals and sponsorship. There are many
different types of horse sports. Some include:
- Polo cross: this is a team sport. there are three players on horseback on
each team. the two teams play on a field each with a thin medium length bat with
a net on the end to scoop up the ball. there is a goal scorer (number 1), an
attack (number 2) and a defender (number 3).
- Polo: this is very similar to polo cross only the bat has no hoop at the
end, instead you have to hit the ball. this sport is often called the sport of
kings for two reasons, because you need to have a lot of money to play and
because it used to only be played by people with enough money, such as kings.
you need a lot of money because each player needs 4 to 6 horses (with gear for
each), as it is such a rough game.
This is an individual sport. A rider has one horse or as many as he/she wants
to compete with, and they have to jump a course of jumps set up by officials.
The jumps are of EFA standards and are of varying heights and difficulty,
depending on the grade, top grade is called A grade EFA. These standards of
jumps and riders are of novice professional standards and are only at 'open
competition' shows and the Olympics. Closed competition shows are that run by
the pony club.
- Eventing: is either individual or a team sport. It incorporates dressage,
show jumping and cross country. it is very tough on both horse and rider, both
need to be extremely fit and well pactised as it tests the pair's competency,
accuracy and team work. Higher standards of eventing are generally so tough they
are held over two or three days, called "three day eventing" (3DE) or "two day
eventing" (2DE). In pony club, though it is only called a one day event (ODE).
Usually in a 3DE, the first day is of dressage and cross country, the second
is roads and tracks (which is like a short endurance ride), then on the last day
is the showjumping. Eventing and show jumping are not for the inexperienced or
faint hearted: it is usually for thrill-seeking people as it is exhilarating
and exciting even for the spectators.
This is an individual sport. the horse and rider need to be fit and well
practised as it tests accuracy and precision and is physically demanding on the
horse. dressage is often related to as dancing on horseback. you and your horse
need to be well presented- neat and well groomed. there are many different tests
to take in dressage, the higher tests are generally for professionals, and ones
under a certain standard are for pony clubbers.
This could be either individual or a team sport. Up until a few years ago (in
Australia) cross-country was not a sport on its own, but now however it is. It
is like cross-country running but with logs and jumps marked out that have to be
jumped. Logs may have a coloured tags on them, depending on what grade you're
This is a team sport, popular in Britain and some parts of Australia, derived
from the sport of fox hunting in Britain and England before it was banned.
Generally people go to a stable with either their own horses or borrow one from
the stable. There is usually a large group of riders of varying experience, the
hunting leader in a red coat, two other riders in black coats and the hounds.
The hounds sniff out a false bait and the riders chase after the dogs when they
find the trail. Riders must be able to jump as there are obstacles along the
way. horses must be able to be pulled up because if a horse and rider pass the
leader in the red coat you are disqualified and must return to the stables.
Hunting is not really classified as a sport but rather as a leisure riding
because you cannot go anywhere with it.
High School Work
This is only for professional horses and riders. It is performed for the
enjoyment of spectators by highly skilled and trained horses and riders. The
horses used, originally from Spain, are the Andalusian and the Lipizzaner which
are especially bred for this exhausting work. Mostly stallions are used because
of their muscle build, strength and stamina. It is similar to dressage as
dressage incorporates some smaller movements, but it is much more challenging.
The horses are generally much older when they start performing because it takes
years and years to train them, thus why training starts at around three years.
Trail riding, like hunting, is called leisure riding because it is usually
done with friends as a weekend activity. Nothing fancy is needed, just a quiet
horse. Trail riding can be done in most areas and is fun to take friends, drinks
and food and go picnicking. A serious trail rider may go into endurance, which
is basically the same but more challenging and fast work.
This can be team or individual. its tough on both horse and rider, both need
to be extremely fit and the horse needs to undergo a vet check before and after
ride. a trail is marked out of varying lengths and depending on what class
you're in depends on how fast you go. professionals can do anywhere from an 80km
ride to 100km ride, galloping some of the way but mainly on the home stretch.
riders often get off and walk some of the way as it is trying on the horse. lots
equipment is needed as you sometimes need to ride at night or stop over.
Pony club is an excellent place for children to go to learn how to ride. It
is usually on public grounds where many pupils attend with their horses to be
instructed. It is not only for young children, you may be a member up until you
are 25 years old. After that you must either become an instructor or become a
member of an adult riding club. Pony clubs hold competitions and events for the
members to compete in. However simple pony club may seem it is actually quite
complicated. one pony club is grouped with about 6-8 others from the same area
and that is called a 'zone'. 'zones' are then grouped with about 4 others from
the same region and that is called an 'area'. pony clubs, zones and areas will
have a number after it according to where it is from. Uniforms are needed for
pony club and a different one for a zone and again for an area. if someone
wishes to go further, then they would go to as many competitions as they could
in a year to try to get qualified for state. To represent your pony club at
state is quite an honour. If you win your division at state you may then proceed
to interstate, then the nationals then the internationals. If you make it to the
internationals, you will be widely noticed and someone may make contact with you
to ask you to join the young riders squad which is like the Olympics for young
Cutting is an individual sport, mainly for advanced riders and horses bred
for stock work (quarter horse). Horse and rider are in an arena with a group of
cows: they cut one out and keep it away from the rest for a certain amount of
time. It seems simple enough, but they must not touch the reins. It is all leg
work and shows the horse's natural ability.
This is a team sport, used by the mounted police many years ago. Four riders
are at one end of a field and a tent is set up in the middle. They ride fast
(usually a gallop) up to the tent and reach right down and whip out the tent's
pegs, until it collapses. Effective when the police wanted to confuse someone.
Horses are usually small and special gear is needed.
This is a team sport. Three riders are in an arena with a group of cows. They
need to cut three cows out and push them into a makeshift pen. It needs to be
done quickly but quietly. The team decides what they will do before they get in
so there is no confusion and each person knows what to do. can be done by
This is an individual sport. A horse and rider are in a stall and a calf is
let loose in the arena. The horse and rider are then let out and chase the calf
flat out across the arena, when they catch up, the horse moves in close
alongside the calf and the rider lassoes the calf around the neck; the horse
pulls up and the rider leaps off and pins it down. They then tie up the calf's
legs and wait to see their score and what time they got.
This can be a team sport. Horse and rider have are given a cow that they need
to navigate through pegs on poles. The horse needs to be well mannered and
responsive as cows can move quickly. They also need to have a lot of 'cow
sense': this means the horse can usually anticipate what the cow will do next
and not be intimidated by it but also not giving it a kick or bite.
This is an individual sport, consisting of show jumping and dressage.
This is an individual sport. A horse and rider need to do loops around three
barrels in the fastest time. Professionals must do it under a certain time
without knocking the barrels. It is quite exciting to watch. Top barrel racing
is not for the inexperienced.
Horses for work
There are certain jobs that horses do very well, and no amount of technology
appears able to supersede. Mounted police are used for crowd control. Some land
management practices such as logging are most efficiently done with horses, to
avoid vehicular disruption to delicate soil such as a nature reserve. Forestry
rangers may choose to use horses for their patrols.
In poor countries such as Romania, horses are widely used for agriculture,
mainly pulling ploughs.
In countries such as Kyrgyzstan, horse-riding is still the most common means
of transport, at least in the countryside.
Horses in warfare
Although no army now uses horses in combat, they were so used until the
middle of the C20 as cavalry units, and are still kept for parade purposes.
Historically, warfare depended on horses, and arguably one of the most important
inventions in terms of its effect upon the destiny of nations was the stirrup,
which gave the nomadic tribes a decisive military advantage over those who did
not have that item of technology. One reason the Europeans were able to conquer
the Americas was their use of horses for combat. The graceful ballet that is now
known as dressage started as battle manoeuvres.
Horses for food
Horse meat has been used as food for animals and humans throughout the ages.
It is eaten in many parts of the world and is an export industry in the USA.
Mare's milk is used by people with large horse-herds, such as the Mongols.
They may let it ferment to produce kumis. However, mares produce a much lower
yield of milk than do cows.
Horse blood was also used as food by the Mongols and other nomadic tribes.
Horses as producers of hormones
Premarin is a mixture of estrogens isolated from horse urine (PREgnant MARes'
urINe). It is a widely used drug for hormone replacement therapy.
Because horses and humans have lived and worked together for thousands of
years, an extensive specialized vocabulary has arisen to describe virtually
every horse behavioral and anatomical characteristic with a high degree of
The English-speaking world measures the height of horses in hands. One
hand is defined in British law as 101.6 mm, a figure derived from the previous
measure of 4 Imperial inches. Horse height is measured at the highest point of
an animal's withers. Perhaps because of extensive selective breeding,
modern adult horses vary widely in size, ranging from miniature horses measuring
5 hands (0.5 m) to draft animals measuring 19 hands (1.8 m) or more. By
convention, 15.2 hh means 15 hands, 2 inches (1.57 m) in height.
Horses versus ponies
Usually, size alone marks the difference between horses and ponies. The
threshold is 14.2 hh (4 feet 10 inches, 1.47 m) for an adult. When a horse is
14.2 hh exactly, it is called borderline and is either a horse or a pony
depending on the breed. Below the threshold an animal is a pony, while above the
threshold it is a horse. Thus normal variations can mean that a horse stallion
and horse mare can become the parents of an adult pony. However, a distinct set
of characteristic pony traits, developed in northwest Europe and further evolved
in the British Isles, make it less clear whether it is more appropriate to use
the word "pony" to describe a size or a type. Many people consider
the Shetland pony as the archetypal pony, as its proportions are so different
from those of horses. Several small breeds are mostly referred to as "horses"
but occasionally as "ponies", though that is generally considered improper by
those familiar with the breeds. These include the Icelandic horse, Fjord horse
and Caspian horse breeds. Breeders of miniature horses favor that name because
they strive to reproduce horse-like attributes in a much smaller animal, even
though their horses undeniably descend from horses of small stature, which are
thereby classifiable as ponies by size.
Words for gaits
All horses move naturally with four basic gaits; these are referred to as the
walk, the trot/jog, the canter/lope ("canter" in English riding, "lope" in
Western), and the gallop.
A walk is a "four-beat" lateral gait in which a horse must have three feet on
the ground and only one foot in the air at any time. The walking horse will lift
first a hind leg, then the foreleg on the same side, then the remaining hind
leg, then the foreleg on the same side. A rider on a trained horse gently
squeezes the sides of the animal and releases the pressure on its reins in order
to initiate a walk from a stationary position. To initiate a walk when a horse
is trotting or proceeding at a faster gait, the rider gently applies pressure on
the reins and sits more firmly in the saddle (or on the horse's back in the
absence of a saddle), gently gripping the horse's sides with the thighs.
A trot is a "two beat" diagonal gait in which a foreleg and opposite hindleg
(often called "diagonals") touch the ground at the same time. In this gait, each
leg bears weight separately, making it ideal to check for lameness or for
stiffness in the joints. A rider on a walking horse initiates a trot by reducing
tautness on the reins and applying more leg pressure. There are three types of
trot a rider can perform; these are called posting trot, in which the rider
stands up slightly in the saddle each time the animal's outside front leg goes
forward, sitting trot, in which the rider sits in the saddle and matches the
horse's movement, and two point, when the rider lifts slightly out of the saddle
and leans forward from the hips. A jog is only used in western riding and is
slower than the trot. When jogging the horse the rider sits deeply in the saddle
moving along with the horse's movement.
A canter is a "three beat" gait in which a foreleg and opposite
strike the ground together, and the other two legs strike separately. A
cantering horse will first stride off with the outside hind leg, then the inside
hind and outside fore together, then the inside front leg, and finally a period
of suspension in which all four legs are off the ground. the rhythm should be
1-2-3, 1-2-3, etc. When cantering in a straight line, it does not
usually matter which foreleg (or leading leg) goes first, but both leads should
receive equal practice time, as otherwise the horse may become "one-sided" or
develop a reluctance to canter on a specific lead. In the arena, the horse
should canter on the inside lead, unless performing counter-canter, a dressage
movement in which cantering with the outside lead is required. In making a
fairly tight turn, the inside leg (the one nearest to the center of the turn)
should lead, as this prevents the horse from "falling in". To get a horse to
canter on the correct leg from trot, the rider must go into sitting trot, place
the outside leg slightly behind the girth and squeeze with the inside leg. To
get a horse to canter from gallop, the rider must alter the position of the body
slightly back in the saddle, then place the outside leg behind the girth to
allow the horse to canter on the correct leg, and apply pressure on the reins.
This is also called "lope" when riding in a Western show class at a slower pace.
The gallop is another "four beat" gait which follows a similar progression to
the canter, except the two paired legs land separately, the hind leg landing
slightly before the foreleg. The gallop also involves having a leading leg. In
turning at a very rapid rate, it is even more important that the horse use the
appropriate lead, leading with the left leg if making a left turn, and the right
leg if making a right turn, since the faster the turn the more the horse needs
to lean into the turn. Horses that usually are galloped in a straight line need
to be changed to alternate leads so that they do not suffer a muscular imbalance
and subsequent difficulty making turns in one direction or the other. To get a
horse into gallop, the rider must alter their position so they are slightly more
forward in the saddle, then they should allow the horse its head and gently
nudge the horse's sides. The gallop is usually used in races or fox hunting.
However, a horse should not be galloped during training in a ring or enclosed
area, due to the fact that the horse may slip in attempting to gallop in such an
area. Although a race track is an enclosed area, it is large enough for a horse
to gallop safely.
Some horses, called Gaited Horses, have gaits other than the most common four
above. For details, see Horse gaits.
Words relating to horses
You can view an entire equine dictionary at: The Horse Dictionary
- bronco: a wild untamed horse, typically used for the American mustang.
- brumby: a wild or untrained Australian horse
- charger: a medieval war horse of lighter build; not to be confused
with a destrier
- cob: any horse of a short-legged stout variety, with short legs, and
a compact body, neck and back
- colt: an ungelded male horse from birth till the age of 4.
- destrier: a heavy, strong medieval war horse; not to be confused with a
charger or palfrey
- draught horse: heavy, muscular beast of burden
- filly: female horse from birth till the age of 4.
- foal: infant horse of either sex
- garron: small and disdained horse
- gelding: a castrated male horse of any age
- god dog: how the Apaches referred to horses
- green: a term used to describe an inexperienced horse
- hack: A horseback ride taken for the purpose of pleasure, either for horse
or rider. Not a trail ride or schooling ride. Generally used only by
English-style riders. e.g. I'm going out on a hack." Can also be used as
a name for a type of horse, one that is good for hacking.
- hackney: a specific breed of flashy elegant driving pony
- hand: a unit of measuring used frequently to measure a horses height. One
hand is equal to 4 inches (appox. 10 cm)
- horse: adult equine of either sex over 14.2 hh (58 inches, 1.47 m)
- jenny: a female donkey
- mule: the offspring of a jackass and a mare mated
- mare: adult female horse
- mustang: a feral horse found in the western plains of North America.
According to BLM, though, a mustang is an unclaimed unbranded free-roaming
- nag: a horse, especially one over-worked. Only more recently has it
become closely associated with the 'old' modifier (i.e "nag" = old tired
- palfrey: a smooth gaited type, a riding horse, often used incorrectly to
mean a woman's horse, but in fact, was ridden by knights and ladies and instead
refers to the light build of the riding horses body. The word came from Late
Latin paraverēdus, from Greek para- and Celtic verēdus,
"beside-horse", because to save its energy the warhorse was for most of the time
led alongside another horse instead of being ridden, and the knight switched
from another horse and mounted his palfrey at the last moment before the battle:
for the etymology compare destrier.
- pony: equine 14.2 hh or less (58 inches, 1.47 metres)
- school horse or school pony: A horse owned by a riding academy
- shelt or shelty: a Shetland pony
- stallion: adult, male horse that is able to produce offspring
- weanling: a young horse that has just been weaned from its mother
(usually 6 months or a little older)
- yearling: male or female horse one to two years old
In horse racing the definitions of colt, filly, mare, and horse differ from
those given above. Thoroughbred racing defines a colt as a male
horse less than five years old and a filly as
a female horse less than five years old; harness racing defines colts and
fillies as less than four years old. Horses older than colts and fillies become
known as horses and mares respectively.
Words relating to horse anatomy
- withers: the highest point of the shoulder seen best with horse standing
square and head slightly lowered. The tops of the two shoulder blades and the
space between them define the withers. Should be even with the croup, otherwise
a "sway-back" may be present. The height of the horse is measured at the withers
- mane and forelock: long and relatively coarse hair growing
from the dorsal ridge of the neck, lying on either the left or right side of the
neck, and the continuation of that hair on the top of the head, where it
generally hangs forward. (See illustration.)
- dock: the point where the tail connects to the rear of the horse.
- flank: Where the hind legs and the stomach of the horse meet.
- pastern: The connection between the coronet and the fetlock. Made up
of the middle and proximal phalanx.
- fetlock: Resembles the ankle of the horse. Known to anatomists as the
- coronet: The part of the hoof that connects the hoof to the pastern.
- cannon: Resembles the shin of the horse. Consists of metacarpal III.
- muzzle: the chin, mouth, and nostrils make up the muzzle on the
- crest: the point on the neck where the mane grows out of.
- poll: the portion of the horse's neck right behind the ears.
- hock: Hindlimb equivalent to the Heel, the main joint on the hind
- stifle: corresponds to the elbow of a horse, except on the hind limb.
- gaskin: also known as the "second thigh," the large muscle on the
hind leg, just above the hock, below the stifle.
- jowl: the cheek bone under the horses ear on both sides
- chestnut: on the inside of every leg
- frog: the highly elastic wedge-shaped mass on the bottom of the hoof,
which normally makes contact with the ground first
Horse coat colors and markings
Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings, and a
specialized vocabulary has evolved to describe them. In fact, one will often
refer to a horse in the field by his or her coat color rather than by breed or
Coat colors include
- Leopard or Appaloosa - There are a group of coat patterns caused by the
leopard gene. There are several distinct leopard patterns:
- blanket: white over the hip that may extend from the tail to the base of the
neck. The spots inside the blanket (if present) are the same color as the
horse's base coat.
- varnish roan: a mix of body and white hairs that extends over the entire
body--no relation to true roan
- snowflake: white spots on a dark body. Typically the white spots increase in
number and size as the horse ages.
- leopard: dark spots of varying sizes over a white body.
- few spot leopard: a nearly white horse from birth that retains colour just
above the hooves, the knees, 'armpits', mane and tail, wind pipe, and face
- frost: similar to varnish but the white hairs are limited to the back,
loins, and neck.
Many horses develop a more extensive coloration than they were born with over
the course of several years. It is not unusual for markings to change over time
and with the seasons. It should be noted that not every horse with the leopard
gene will exhibit spotting. However, even solid individuals will exhibit
'characteristics' such as vertically striped hooves, mottles skin around the
eyes, lips, and genetalia, and visible sclera of the eye. Several breeds of
horse can boast leopard (a term used collectively for all patterns) individuals
including the Knabstrup, Noriker, and most famously the Appaloosa.
- Bay- From light brown to very dark brown with black points and intermingling
red or blue hairs in some cases. (Points refer to the main, tail, muzzle, lower
legs, and tips of the ears). Four types - Dark bay (mixed blue hair), blood bay
(mixed red hair), light bay and just bay.
- Black- There are two types of black, fading black and jet black. Ordinary
black horses will fade to a rusty brownish color if the horse is exposed to
sunlight on a regular basis, this though would be considered brown as soon as
any black coat gets any brown. Jet black is a blue-black shade that is
fade proof. Black foals are usually born a mousy grey color. As their foal coat
begins to shed out, their black color will show through, but jet black foals are
born jet black. Usually for a horse to be considered black it must be completely
black with no brown at all, only white markings.
- Brindle - One of the rarest colors of horse. Characterisics are any color
with "zebra-like" stripes.
- Brown - A bay without any black points.
- Buckskin- A bay horse with a gene that 'dilutes' the coat colour to a
yellow, cream, or gold while keeping the black points (mane, tail, muzzle, ears,
- Chestnut- A reddish body color with little or no black. There are many
different variations of chestnut.
Liver chestnut: dark red coat with black hairs in the mane and tail. Blond
chestnut: lighter orange coat with pale mane and tail. Taffy chestnut: light
brown-cream coat with flaxen mane and tail. (also as sorrel)
- Cremello - A chestnut horse with two dilute genes that washes out almost all
colour. Often called pseudo albinos, they have blue eyes. There are no true
- Dapple gray: a gray colored horse with lighter gray spots, or dapples,
- Dun - Yellowish brown with a dorsal stripe along the back and occasionally
zebra striping's on the legs.
- Fleabitten gray - refers to usually red hairs flecked in the coat of a gray
- Gray - A horse with black skin and clear hairs. Gray horses can be born any
color, and eventually most will turn gray or white with age. If you would define
the horse as white it is still grey unless it is albino. Some gray horses that
are very light must wear sunscreen.
- Grulla- A black horse with a dun gene. It is often a grayish/silver colored
horse with dark dun factors
- Pinto - a multi-colored horse with large patches of brown, white, and/or
black and white. Piebald is black and white, while Skewbald is white and brown.
Specific patterns such as tobiano, overo, and tovero refer to the orientation of
white on the body.
- Paint - In 1962, the American Paint Horse Association began to recognize
pinto horses with known Quarter Horse and/or Thoroughbred bloodlines as a
separate breed. Today, Paint horses are the world's fifth most popular breed.
- Palomino-chestnut horse that has one cream dilute gene that turns the horse
to a golden, yellow, or tan shade with a flaxen (white) mane and tail. Often
cited as being a color "within three shades of a newly minted coin", palominos
actually come in all shades from extremely light, to deep chocolate. Normally
referred to as "blonde" horses.
- Perlino - Exactly like a cremello but a bay horse with two dilute genes.
- Roan - a color pattern that causes white hairs to be sprinkled over the
horse's body color. Red roans are chesnut and white hairs, blue roans are
black/bay with white hairs. Roan can happen on any body color; for example,
there are palomino roans and dun roans. Roans are distinguishable from greys
because roans typically do not change colour in their lifetimes, unlike gray
that gradually gets lighter as a horse ages. Roans also have solid colored heads
that do not lighten.
- Rose gray: a gray horse with a pinkish tinge to its coat. This colour occurs
while the horse is "graying out."
- Splash - a genetically controlled horse coat variation.
- Tobiano - a genetic trait among horses which produces a characteristic white
pattern in the coat.
- White - Any non-albino white horse is called a gray, even though they appear
white. All white, may be the result of overlapping pinto, appaloosa, or sabino
markings. Rarely there are true white horses born and are documented to have a
dominant white gene (see Gray (horse) for a discussion of these). These horses
have normal eye colour, and they stay white for life.
On the face:
- Star (a white patch between the eyes)
- Snip (a white patch on the muzzle)
- Stripe (narrow white stripe down the middle of the face)
- Interrupted Stripe (a narrow white stripe down the middle of the face that
is interrupted and not continuous)
- Blaze (broad white stripe down the middle of the face)
- White Face (sometimes called Bald Face)
- Glass Eye (blue eye, having a glassy look to it, also called China Eye)
- Mascara (the effect of a horse in contact with the Santa Cruz Tarweed or
other sticky plant, which comes in contact with soil and creates a temporary
On the legs:
- Ermine marks (black marks on the white just above the hoof)
- Sock (white marking that does not extend as high as the knee or hock but is
taller than a pastern)
- Stocking (white marking that extends as high as the knee or hock)
- Pastern (white marking that extends only a few inches above the top of the
- Whorls, colloquially known as "cow licks" - are divergent or convergent
patches of hair found anywhere on the body but mostly on the head, neck and just
in front of the stifles.
For horse color and marking genetics see Equine coat color genetics. Another
good resource for horse color is: Horse color, markings, and genetics. Another
that has numerous photographs of various colours and markings is Equine color.
Mesohippus is an extinct genus of early horse. It lived some 40 to 30 million years ago. Like many fossil horses, Mesohippus was common in North America.
The origin of modern horse breeds
Horses come in various sizes and shapes. The draft breeds can top 20 hands
(80 inches, 2 metres) while the smallest miniature horses can stand as low as
5.2 hands (22 inches, 0.56 metres). The Patagonian Fallabella, usually
considered the smallest horse in the world, compares in size to a German
Several schools of thought exist to explain how this range of size and shape
came about. These schools grew up reasoning from the type of dentition and from
the horses' outward appearance. One school, which we can call the "Four
Foundations", suggests that the modern horse evolved from two types of early
domesticated pony and two types of early domesticated horse; the differences
between these types account for the differences in type of the modern breeds. A
second school -- the "Single Foundation" -- holds only one breed of horse
underwent domestication, and it diverged in form after domestication through
human selective breeding (or in the case of feral horses, through ecological
pressures). Finally, certain geneticists have started evaluating the DNA and
mitochondrial DNA to construct family trees. See: Domestication of the horse
The Icelandic horse (pony-sized but called a horse) provides an opportunity
to compare contemporary and historical breed appearances and behaviour.
Introduced by the Vikings into Iceland, these horses did not subsequently
undergo the intensive selective breeding that took place in the rest of Europe
from the Middle Ages onwards, and consequently bear a closer resemblance to
pre-Medieval breeds. The Icelandic horse has a four-beat gait called the "tölt",
similar to the "rack" of certain American gaited breeds.
Breeds, studbooks, purebreds, and landraces
Selective breeding of horses has occurred as long as man has domesticated
them. However, the concept of controlled breed registries has gained much wider
importance during the 20th century. One of the earliest formal registries was
General Stud Book for thoroughbreds, a process that started in 1791 tracing
back to the foundation sires for that breed. These sires were Arabians, brought
to England from the Middle East.
The Arabs had a reputation for breeding their prize mares to only the most
worthy stallions, and kept extensive pedigrees of their "asil" (purebred)
horses. During the late Middle Ages the Carthusian monks of southern Spain,
themselves forbidden to ride, bred horses which nobles throughout Europe prized;
the lineage survives to this day in the Andalusian horse or caballo de pura
Standardbreds are another racing breed. They have an additional gait, the
pace, and are usually driven, pulling a light carriage known as a sulky, rather
The modern landscape of breed designation presents a complicated picture.
Some breeds have closed studbooks; a registered Thoroughbred, Arabian, or
Quarter Horse must have two registered parents of the same breed, and no other
criteria for registration apply. Other breeds tolerate limited infusions from
other breeds—the modern Appaloosa for instance must have at least one Appaloosa
parent but may also have a Quarter Horse, Thoroughbred, or Arabian parent and
must also exhibit spotted coloration to gain full registration. Still other
breeds, such as most of the warmblood sporthorses, require individual judging of
an individual animal's quality before registration or breeding approval.
Breed registries also differ as to their acceptance or rejection of breeding
technology. For example, all Jockey Club Thoroughbred registries require that a
registered Thoroughbred be a product of a natural mating ('live cover' in horse
parlance). A foal born of two Thoroughbred parents, but by means of artificial
insemination, is barred from the Thoroughbred studbook. Any Thoroughbred bred
outside of these constraints can, however, become part of the Performance Horse
Many breed registries allow artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, or
both. The high value of stallions has helped with the acceptance of these
techniques because they 1) allow for more doses with each stallion 'collection'
and 2) take away the risk of injury during the mating.
Hotbloods, warmbloods, and coldbloods
Horses are mammals and as such are all warm-blooded creatures, as opposed to
reptiles, which are cold-blooded. However, these words have developed a separate
meaning in the context of equine description, with the "hot-bloods" generally
originating from hotter countries and exhibiting more sensitivity and energy,
while the "cold-bloods" are heavier, calmer creatures such as the draft giants.
Arabian horses, whether originating on the Arabian peninsula or from the
European studs (breeding establishments) of the 18th and 19th centuries, gained
the title of "hotbloods" for their temperament, characterised by sensitivity,
keen awareness, athleticism, and energy. It was these traits, combined with the
lighter, aesthetically refined bone structure, which was used as the foundation
of the thoroughbreds. The European breeders wished to infuse some of this energy
and athleticism into their own best cavalry horses.
The Thoroughbred is unique to all breeds in that its muscles can be trained
for either fast-twitch (for sprinting) or slow-twitch (for endurance), making
them an extremely versatile breed. Arabians are used in the sport horse world
almost exclusively for endurance competitions. Breeders continue to use Arabian
sires with Thoroughbred dams to enhance the sensitivity of the offspring for use
in equestrian sports. This Arabian/Thoroughbred cross is known as an
True hotbloods usually offer greater riding challenges and rewards than other
horses. Their sensitivity and intelligence enable quick learning, and greater
communication and cooperation with their riders. However, they sometimes decide
that a new flowerpot is really a dragon, and the rider must spend the next five
minutes calming them down.
Muscular and heavy draft horses are known as "coldbloods", as they have been
bred to be workhorses and carriage horses with calm temperaments. Harnessing a
horse to a carriage requires some level of trust in the horse to remain calm
when restrained. The best known cold bloods would probably be the Budweiser
Warmblood breeds began in much the same way as the Thoroughbred. The best of
the European carriage or cavalry horses were bred to Arabian, Anglo-Arabian and
Thoroughbred sires. The term "warmbloods" is sometimes used to mean any
draft/Thoroughbred cross although this is becoming less common. The warmblood
name has become the term to specifically refer to the sporthorse breed
registries than began in Europe, although now worldwide. These registries, or
societies, such as the Hanoverian, Oldenburg, Trakehner, and Holsteiner have
dominated the Olympics and World Equestrian Games in Dressage and Show Jumping
since the 1950s.
The list of horse breeds provides a partial alphabetical list of breeds of
horse extant today, plus a discussion of rare breeds' conservation.
Tack and equipment
"Tack" (also known as saddlery) refers to equipment worn by the horse,
normally when being ridden or longed for exercise. The tack may be made from
leather or from a synthetic material, which tends to be lighter to carry and
cheaper to buy.
The basic tack a horse requires is:
- A bridle, including a bit and reins
- A saddle, including stirrup leathers, stirrup irons, and a girth
- A saddlepad
- A halter and lead rope
Saddling and mounting
The common European practice and tradition of saddling and mounting the horse
from the left hand side is sometimes said to originate from the need to avoid
inadvertently striking the horse with a carried sword in the process. However,
several other explanations are equally plausible.
Bareback horses, lacking stirrups, can be mounted with a vault from the
ground, although in practice most riders use a mounting block.
The horse features in the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the
Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. According to Chinese folklore,
each animal is associated with certain personality traits, and those born in the
year of the horse are: intelligent, independent and free-spirited.
horses are not easy to train. but get very used to you!
i like your clips, horses are colour blind but they have lots
of fun playing with other horses
Horses are awsome if you would like to play a fun game with them u can put a
carrot in your pocket for them to find or make them look for u by colors all
Okay. what is the breed of grey spotted horse ?
I love horses.
I LOVE IT LOVE NICK
I am in Puerto Rico and I have 481 horses here and I'm rich
!!!!! I love horses . I will never hurt a horse